What factors influence the results of the image session?
A number of factors contribute to the actual scores generated by the VISIA complexion analysis algorithms, including the condition of the skin (cleaned vs. fresh make-up, old make-up, time-of-day), head registration within the booth, facial expression (particularly for wrinkles), stray hair, glare areas resulting from oily skin, etc. Note that the percentile scores were generated for subjects with cleaned skin prior to their imaging session, so results may vary if make-up is not removed prior to a patient’s VISIA session.
What is the definition for each of the three types of skin conditions? How does VISIA use this information?
´Clean´ is defined as skin that has been recently cleansed and without make-up or skin conditioners applied. ´Fresh Make-up´ is defined as make-up recently applied (roughly within the past hour); ´Other´ covers all other cases. No change is made in terms of either taking the photo or in the analysis process based upon the skin condition selected.
This information is recorded in the patient’s file for each session and allows scores to be properly interpreted if images were captured under different conditions session-to-session.
Should the patient’s eyes be open or closed when the picture is taken?
It is strongly recommended that the eyes be closed for the UV photos given the intensity of the UV flashes. For standard photos, the eyes can be either open or closed, although more aesthetically pleasing images are achieved with the eyes open. Because the mask is created using the standard photo (in which the patient’s eyes are typically open), there is no need to be concerned that eyelashes will be included inadvertently in UV analysis, even though the patient’s eyes are closed.
What are the definitions of the various skin features and how are the features detected?
Spots: Spots are typically brown or red skin lesions including freckles, acne scars, hyper-pigmentation and vascular lesions. Spots are distinguishable by their distinct colour and contrast from the background skin tone. Spots vary in size and generally have a circular shape.
Pores: Pores are the circular surface openings of sweat gland ducts. Due to shadowing, pores appear darker than the surrounding skin tone and are identified by their darker colour and circular shape. The VISIA system distinguishes pores from spots based on size; by definition, the area of a pore is much smaller than a spot.
Wrinkles: Wrinkles are furrows, folds or creases in the skin, which increase in occurrence as a result of sun exposure, and are associated with decreasing skin elasticity. This skin feature has the greatest variability from image to image as it is highly dependent upon the facial expression of the client. Wrinkles are identified by their characteristic long, narrow shape.
Texture: Texture is primarily an analysis of skin smoothness. Texture measures skin colour and smoothness by identifying gradations in colour from the surrounding skin tone, as well as peaks (shown in yellow) and valleys (shown in blue) on the skin surface that indicate variations in the surface texture.
Porphyrins: Porphyrins are bacterial excretions that can become lodged in pores and lead to acne. Porphyrins fluoresce in UV light and exhibit circular purple spot characteristics.
UV Spots: UV spots occur when melanin collects below the skin surface as a result of sun damage. UV spots are generally invisible under normal lighting conditions. The selective absorption of the UV light by the epidermal melanin enhances its display and detection by VISIA.
Red Areas: Red Areas represent a potential variety of conditions, such as acne, inflammation, Rosacea or spider veins. Blood vessels and haemoglobin contained in the papillary dermis, a sub-layer of skin, give these structures their red colour, which is detected by the RBX Technology in VISIA. Acne spots and inflammation vary in size but are generally round in shape. Rosacea is usually larger and diffuse compared to acne, and spider veins usually are short, thin and can be interconnected in a dense network.
Brown Spots: Brown Spots are lesions on the skin such as hyper-pigmentation, freckles, lentigines, and melasma. Brown Spots occur from an excess of Melanin. Melanin is produced by melanocytes in the bottom layer of the epidermis. Brown Spots produce an uneven appearance to the skin, and are detected in VISIA by RBX.